分析微信公众号协议,探索微信公众号文章的爬取方法

作者:李佶澳  更新时间:

  技巧    spider    刷新

说明

一直很好奇微信公众号的文章是怎样被爬到的,花费了些时间研究了下,搞明白了一些。

从搜狗中爬取

搜狗是腾讯系的公司,独家提供微信订阅号文章的搜索。之前认为是要通过分析查询接口构造请求,现在才知道哪里用得着这么麻烦,早就鸟枪换炮了:现在可以直接通过代码调用浏览器。

这款神器叫Selenium,一个web自动化测试工具。Selenium有python的sdk,可以用写python代码调用,强大到爆炸:Selenium with Python

有了工具之后,剩下的就是分析页面格式,然后从中提取需要的内容就可以了。但是从搜狗中爬取,只能爬取最近10篇文章,之前见过有人直接爬取了微信公众号的所有历史信息,应该还有别的渠道。

从微信中爬取

在微信上是可以看到所有历史文章的,从微信中爬取实际是解析出url,然后模拟微信发起请求,从而获得所有历史文章。

url可以用charles、fiddler等工具分析,见PC电脑端、手机移动端通信数据报文的抓取、破解、改写(请求拦截)的方法

分析charles中记录的http请求,找到了获取文章列表的请求:

GET /mp/profile_ext?action=getmsg&__biz=MzAwMDkzMzQxMg==&f=json&offset=12&count=10&is_ok=1&scene=126&uin=777&key=777&pass_ticket=9SXu1e%2B%2BEELott8G7DtwjdOTm6K%2FEAg%2Fly9G%2FT6VWcC0Dskjjs1FqD3QBuClm81%2F&wxtoken=&appmsg_token=988_wmj1WDH6IB%252FvaB3n_uWF9Rrw4e0owoBNRkZ_oQ~~&x5=0&f=json HTTP/1.1
Host: mp.weixin.qq.com
Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate
Cookie: devicetype=iOS12.0; lang=zh_CN; pass_ticket=9SXu1e++EELott8G7DtwjdOTm6K/EAg/ly9G/T6VWcC0Dskjjs1FqD3QBuClm81/; version=17000027; wap_sid2=CIy47I4KElx2YV9yMENmWHUwMU5RbGNwajZZMElROHJlbXlLWGQ1dnJkb185YjRVUTJ0VDJoSWtJZlJGX3VZdTJuN0R6NXp5bFoydVFNaTRpbkRMMDNNSVV3Q2Z0dHdEQUFBfjCg9f3gBTgNQJVO; wxuin=2715491340
Connection: keep-alive
Accept: */*
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN
Referer: https://mp.weixin.qq.com/mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=MzAwMDkzMzQxMg==&scene=126&bizpsid=0&sessionid=1545566864&subscene=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=9SXu1e%2B%2BEELott8G7DtwjdOTm6K%2FEAg%2Fly9G%2FT6VWcC0Dskjjs1FqD3QBuClm81%2F&wx_header=1
Accept-Language: zh-cn
X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest

下面是查询另一个公众号时的请求:

GET /mp/profile_ext?action=getmsg&__biz=MjM5MzI5NjQxMA==&f=json&offset=10&count=10&is_ok=1&scene=126&uin=777&key=777&pass_ticket=AcQ14aHj%2Fkg3tFT52SoBwsGDIUk4ZS6YHGlqN6iYe62ZbJcW4rXJpOVInRlLdGgU&wxtoken=&appmsg_token=988_gh5MAoozDeEQTAf3H7_1VV2zcA30d7ZU1oeyzw~~&x5=0&f=json HTTP/1.1
Host: mp.weixin.qq.com
Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate
Cookie: devicetype=iOS12.0; lang=zh_CN; pass_ticket=AcQ14aHj/kg3tFT52SoBwsGDIUk4ZS6YHGlqN6iYe62ZbJcW4rXJpOVInRlLdGgU; version=17000027; wap_sid2=CIy47I4KElxlZ0IxLVFRcUtOUXNDN2tlQXBRZWtaYVhDbmVyOF92NUc2REZic2xMNVA1WDNwa19QMm5vYXMwb2ZrVkJBRVVobW5xeXFGVjYzVHlneFJYODlfd2FITndEQUFBfjD0y/3gBTgNQJVO; wxuin=2715491340
Connection: keep-alive
Accept: */*
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN
Referer: https://mp.weixin.qq.com/mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=MjM5MzI5NjQxMA==&scene=126&bizpsid=0&sessionid=1545561318&subscene=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=AcQ14aHj%2Fkg3tFT52SoBwsGDIUk4ZS6YHGlqN6iYe62ZbJcW4rXJpOVInRlLdGgU&wx_header=1
Accept-Language: zh-cn
X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest

用Beyond Compare对比发现,URI中以下参数不同:

__biz
pass_ticket
appmsg_token

cookie中以下参数不同:

pass_ticket  # 和uri中参数一致
wap_sid2

带上所有的头信息,用curl模拟请求能够返回json格式的文章列表,但是如果不带cookie,会出错:

{
    "base_resp": {
        "cookie_count": 1,
        "csp_nonce": 20452345,
        "errmsg": "no session",
        "ret": -3
    },
    "cookie_count": 1,
    "errmsg": "no session",
    "ret": -3
}

错误信息是no session,分析cookie,发现有个wap_sid2,这个session id从其它请求中获得的。

检查发现是这个请求:

GET /mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=MzAwMDkzMzQxMg==&scene=126&bizpsid=0&sessionid=1545566864&subscene=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=9SXu1e%2B%2BEELott8G7DtwjdOTm6K%2FEAg%2Fly9G%2FT6VWcC0Dskjjs1FqD3QBuClm81%2F&wx_header=1 HTTP/1.1
Host: mp.weixin.qq.com
X-WECHAT-KEY: ac92af8b12ec9e8e4d5d36e08a3190036bd15f7582dad48310eba6540cec86760d8ea383bc835832a270beffc50b439a2a57ea63816199a738ec5db62a974b9318a3b063b68bf32b9795da1f7e0f0273
X-WECHAT-UIN: MjcxNTQ5MTM0MA%3D%3D
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN
Accept-Language: zh-cn
Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate
Connection: keep-alive

这个请求的返回会设置cookie。

知道了是哪些请求之后,请空所有记录,重新操作一边,做一份干净的记录,先记录查看“南方周末”文章列表的请求:

获取南方周末的文章列表页:

GET /mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=Njk5MTE1&scene=126&bizpsid=0&sessionid=1545568846&subscene=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=P48iPZPrIx8KAASsVV0Ai0ME2FEA6iX2dN8%2BXkFWAW7MHFGqWCNHDe1HFvLXj3Kz&wx_header=1 HTTP/1.1
Host: mp.weixin.qq.com
X-WECHAT-KEY: fb4c212d7c885279b42bd2e0f8b03f9e64c31a180a60f6e0a8acd68cf4d0043b3c62e7603aa0263e2b46736f191d781c9e49fc1f53a72820bc69ef2da6306b52d6f3fed036b120bf93973e6336e2541c
X-WECHAT-UIN: MjcxNTQ5MTM0MA%3D%3D
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN
Accept-Language: zh-cn
Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate
Connection: keep-alive

加载南方周末的更多文章:

GET /mp/profile_ext?action=getmsg&__biz=Njk5MTE1&f=json&offset=10&count=10&is_ok=1&scene=126&uin=777&key=777&pass_ticket=P48iPZPrIx8KAASsVV0Ai0ME2FEA6iX2dN8%2BXkFWAW7MHFGqWCNHDe1HFvLXj3Kz&wxtoken=&appmsg_token=988_DhMRH3YVUCof4sqg6l5aExx8N22DJe0ND--VAA~~&x5=0&f=json HTTP/1.1
Host: mp.weixin.qq.com
Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate
Cookie: devicetype=iOS12.0; lang=zh_CN; pass_ticket=P48iPZPrIx8KAASsVV0Ai0ME2FEA6iX2dN8+XkFWAW7MHFGqWCNHDe1HFvLXj3Kz; version=17000027; wap_sid2=CIy47I4KElxtVXVZUWwtZnFoMEpwcUVvRjdRUHA5ZkJuX1IwcG5OUk1IdkVFZEtoVWhuMWpPTkh6aUZ2U05fVkNya05fZ2dkaHRzU25aeU1aVExGMTRBb1JxQkdMdHdEQUFBfjDWhP7gBTgNQJVO; wxuin=2715491340
Connection: keep-alive
Accept: */*
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN
Referer: https://mp.weixin.qq.com/mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=Njk5MTE1&scene=126&bizpsid=0&sessionid=1545568846&subscene=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=P48iPZPrIx8KAASsVV0Ai0ME2FEA6iX2dN8%2BXkFWAW7MHFGqWCNHDe1HFvLXj3Kz&wx_header=1
Accept-Language: zh-cn
X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest

然后换一个微信号,请求另一个公众号“观点推荐”的文章列表:

获取观点推荐的文章列表页:

GET /mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=MzI0ODAwNzcyOQ==&scene=126&bizpsid=0&sessionid=1545569099&subscene=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=OH5QKPzWR%2Fa8zzGhUulhdHr%2Bhbs63P2MM84dorG7cn6wYcxzKn%2FFaODJnagqo7Q5&wx_header=1 HTTP/1.1
Host: mp.weixin.qq.com
X-WECHAT-KEY: c39a264a227b9301394c74702f2a9e1bbad5551b1c70d20164732312fb9c2fdaace0c601f1540b6180634ba1ae18626ccd923af9e6dbdf77e3f94d05a34f3337e0c2cfc201ab722f01a396f0829717ac
X-WECHAT-UIN: XXXXXXNg%3D%3D
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN
Accept-Language: zh-cn
Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate
Connection: keep-alive

加载观点推荐的更多文章:

GET /mp/profile_ext?action=getmsg&__biz=MzI0ODAwNzcyOQ==&f=json&offset=23&count=10&is_ok=1&scene=126&uin=777&key=777&pass_ticket=OH5QKPzWR%2Fa8zzGhUulhdHr%2Bhbs63P2MM84dorG7cn6wYcxzKn%2FFaODJnagqo7Q5&wxtoken=&appmsg_token=988_rsPtD7IlXicNsEZYRUwLlMYRwwEojhVgaYzX_A~~&x5=0&f=json HTTP/1.1
Host: mp.weixin.qq.com
Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate
Cookie: devicetype=iOS12.0; lang=zh_CN; pass_ticket=OH5QKPzWR/a8zzGhUulhdHr+hbs63P2MM84dorG7cn6wYcxzKn/FaODJnagqo7Q5; version=17000027; wap_sid2=CKi1q+0MElxuYWMyMW82bVd1andFT2E4VUw5MGw2Y2tRWlI0WHplRV9XUFpzbjg3enMxeGhIeDNDV2NzYlF6bkdaWEFiMjVOc1l1ek9VVFNBN3phd2pMX1BXeXdOdHdEQUFBfjDRhv7gBTgNQJVO; wxuin=3450526376
Connection: keep-alive
Accept: */*
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN
Referer: https://mp.weixin.qq.com/mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=MzI0ODAwNzcyOQ==&scene=126&bizpsid=0&sessionid=1545569099&subscene=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=OH5QKPzWR%2Fa8zzGhUulhdHr%2Bhbs63P2MM84dorG7cn6wYcxzKn%2FFaODJnagqo7Q5&wx_header=1
Accept-Language: zh-cn
X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest

用beyond compare进行对比,观察数值不同的参数。

然后用curl模拟请求,并且通过增删改参数,确定参数作用。

如下所示,如果去掉X-WECHAT-KEY和X-WECHAT-UIN,会返回暂无权限查看此页面内容的页面。

curl  --compressed \
"https://mp.weixin.qq.com/mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=Njk5MTE1&scene=126&bizpsid=0&sessionid=1545568840&subscene=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=P48iPZPrIx8KAASsVV0Ai0ME2FEA6iX2dN8%2BXkFWAW7MHFGqWCNHDe1HFvLXj3Kz&wx_header=1" \
-H "Host: mp.weixin.qq.com" \
-H "Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8" \
-H "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN" \
-H "Accept-Language: zh-cn" \
-H "Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate" \
-H "Connection: keep-alive" \

#-H "X-WECHAT-KEY: fb4c212d7c885279b42bd2e0f8b03f9e64c31a180a60f6e0a8acd68cf4d0043b3c62e7603aa0263e2b46736f191d781c9e49fc1f53a72820bc69ef2da6306b52d6f3fed036b120bf93973e6336e2541c" \
#-H "X-WECHAT-UIN: MjcxNTQ5MTM0MA%3D%3D" \

另外sessionid和pass_ticket是客户端确定的,可以断定要抓去一个公众号的文章列表,只需要确定下面的参数:

__biz:        每个公众号的唯一编码
X-WECHAT-KEY: 微信账号的KEY
X-WECHAT-UIN: 微信账号的ID

将脚本修改为如下:

BIZ=Njk5MTE1  #南方周末
KEY=fb4c212d7c885279b42bd2e0f8b03f9e64c31a180a60f6e0a8acd68cf4d0043b3c62e7603aa0263e2b46736f191d781c9e49fc1f53a72820bc69ef2da6306b52d6f3fed036b120bf93973e6336e2541c
UIN=MjcxNTQ5MTM0MA%3D%3D

curl  --compressed \
"https://mp.weixin.qq.com/mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=${BIZ}&scene=126&bizpsid=0&sessionid=1545568841&subscene=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=P48iPZPrIx8KAASsVV0Ai0ME2FEA6iX2dN8%2BXkFWAW7MHFGqWCNHDe1HFvLXj3KZ&wx_header=1" \
-H "Host: mp.weixin.qq.com" \
-H "Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8" \
-H "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN" \
-H "Accept-Language: zh-cn" \
-H "Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate" \
-H "Connection: keep-alive" \
-H "X-WECHAT-KEY: ${KEY}" \
-H "X-WECHAT-UIN: ${UIN}" \

然后将BIZ换成“观点推荐”的:

BIZ="MzI0ODAwNzcyOQ=="  #观点推荐

返回无权查看,比较奇怪,把KEY和UIN也换掉以后就可以了:

KEY=c39a264a227b9301394c74702f2a9e1bbad5551b1c70d20164732312fb9c2fdaace0c601f1540b6180634ba1ae18626ccd923af9e6dbdf77e3f94d05a34f3337e0c2cfc201ab722f01a396f0829717ac
UIN=XXXXXXNg%3D%3D

然这个KEY和UIN是公众号有对应关系?

用同一个账号,请求另一个公众号:

小道消息的文章列表:

GET /mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=MjM5ODIyMTE0MA==&scene=126&bizpsid=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=OH5QKPzWR%2Fa8zzGhUulhdHr%2Bhbs63P2MM84dorG7cn6wYcxzKn%2FFaODJnagqo7Q5&wx_header=1 HTTP/1.1
Host: mp.weixin.qq.com
Cookie: devicetype=iOS12.0; lang=zh_CN; pass_ticket=OH5QKPzWR/a8zzGhUulhdHr+hbs63P2MM84dorG7cn6wYcxzKn/FaODJnagqo7Q5; version=17000027; wap_sid2=CKi1q+0MElxuYWMyMW82bVd1andFT2E4VUw5MGw2Y2tRWlI0WHplRV9XUFpzbjg3enMxeGhIeDNDV2NzYlF6bkdaWEFiMjVOc1l1ek9VVFNBN3phd2pMX1BXeXdOdHdEQUFBfjDRhv7gBTgNQJVO; wxuin=3450526376
X-WECHAT-KEY: 4c6eab00a00a2b3d53dbd2294245d4765435a5c8bf41af3a8b1fea0a85612be22d6d4e38b3f0c0f87bc0558acc00c1b938598300d9645b761667394fff057252c9a7c96ca9dd00a4cae098529173a394
X-WECHAT-UIN: XXXXXXNg%3D%3D
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN
Accept-Language: zh-cn
Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate
Connection: keep-alive

X-WECHAT-UIN是相同的,X-WECHAT-KEY变化了,果然和公众号有关联关系。

将应用退出,然后用同一个账号再次打开小道消息的列表,发现KEY又变了:

GET /mp/profile_ext?action=home&__biz=MjM5ODIyMTE0MA==&scene=126&bizpsid=0&devicetype=iOS12.0&version=17000027&lang=zh_CN&nettype=WIFI&a8scene=0&fontScale=100&pass_ticket=AZi%2BPqkk8%2BTeQUS3d5jRiT%2BhzdSOHhP6YMrzAjhDisSwrttpwNtsfu8tS419j6mL&wx_header=1 HTTP/1.1
Host: mp.weixin.qq.com
X-WECHAT-KEY: XXXXXXXXXXXXX244bf0afa9548b78948cbb0800935f9c877d186d97ea7f01c9029a25d980ef49bff2e1a43ab195df8270a2a1aeb92d3c5ca4e954e091b12912605536593bd331fa6a4f1bbd
X-WECHAT-UIN: XXXXXXNg%3D%3D
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 12_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Mobile/16A366 MicroMessenger/7.0.0(0x17000024) NetType/WIFI Language/zh_CN
Accept-Language: zh-cn
Accept-Encoding: br, gzip, deflate
Connection: keep-alive

同个账号同个公众号以前的key也好使。现在的问题就是X-WECHAT-KEY是怎样生成的了,这不是一个随便的值,是和公众号有关系的,而且肯能还是和时间有关系的,每次打开文章列表页面,都会生成一个新的KEY,而前一个KEY依然有效,因此应当是用客户端算法生成的。

X-WECHAT-KEY会在一段时间后失效,是通过公众号和时间生成的确定无疑。

从微信中查询出来的url是:

http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MjM5ODIyMTE0MA==&mid=2650972001&idx=1&sn=bae1307dc353bd0fc7b17331bf0ab312&chksm=bd383b5a8a4fb24ce3e97a5fb86a9584b3092fe2c028cdbc2c740134cdcf76d7b8db66d5bf71&scene=27#wechat_redirect

搜狗搜索中同一篇文章的url是:

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?timestamp=1546227145&src=3&ver=1&signature=IMHaqBKKaqm6DjqS6FPRuZKg8*BPVPP9VLFwXDoaIJ-A5Ull3QopG2C9FTmnH06PYWkV-Hmf6O1og3U4HssvgPJi4g820*gc9l--MFCGoKqQcVgs3VRm6ZHdW2yk3k8SUmPOcnjhYVweLhNKkOTCmcBvI8fBbr1IajWb30KUZSQ=

两个url没有什么相关性,只能根据title和js中的创建时间去重:

var svrDate=new Date("1546227211"*1000);
var ct="1545985761"*1;

创建Django项目将数据入库

virtualenv env
source env/bin/activate
pip install --upgrade pip
curl https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py | python
pip install django
pip freeze > requirements.txt
django-admin.py startproject banyung
cd banyung
python manage.py startapp portal

设置数据库banyung/settings.pyDjango Setting文件设置


INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.admin',
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
    'portal',                       # 加上app
]

# 设置数据库
DATABASES = {
#    'default': {
#        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
#        'NAME': os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'db.sqlite3'),
#    }
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql',
        'HOST': '127.0.0.1',
        'NAME': 'wechatspider',
        'USER': 'wechat',
        'PASSWORD': '123456',
        'OPTIONS':{
            'charset': 'utf8mb4',
        },
    }
}

创建models:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from __future__ import unicode_literals

from django.db import models

# Create your models here.
class Pages(models.Model):
    author_id = models.CharField(max_length=64)
    author_name = models.CharField(max_length=64)
    pub_date = models.DateTimeField('date published')
    title = models.CharField(max_length=256)
    url = models.CharField(max_length=1024)
    file = models.CharField(max_length=128)

    class Meta():
        index_together = ["author_id","pub_date","title"] 

创建数据库表:

pip install  mysqlclient
ln  -s  /usr/local/Cellar/mysql\@5.7/5.7.24/ /usr/local/opt/mysql
python manage.py makemigrations
python manage.py migrate

后续

剩下的工作以后有时间在整理,爬取结果在 https://www.lijiaocn.com/wechat/news/ 中可以看到。上面探索出来的爬取方法比较简单,可以抓取完整的公众号文章,但是没有包括点赞和评论。点赞和评论应该也能获取到,不排除还有其它的爬取方式。

参考

  1. Selenium Website
  2. Selenium with Python
  3. PC电脑端、手机移动端通信数据报文的抓取、破解、改写(请求拦截)的方法

关注加微信,一般不闲聊(直接说事)

相关页面,推荐阅读

Copyright @2011-2019 All rights reserved. 转载请添加原文连接,合作请加微信lijiaocn或者发送邮件: [email protected],备注网站合作

友情链接:  微信公众号精选文章  发现知识星球