【视频】超级账本HyperLedger:Fabric的Chaincode(智能合约、链码)开发、使用演示

目录

说明

这是网易云课堂“IT技术快速入门学院”使用的素材。讲解视频位于《HyperLedger Fabric进阶实战课》第四章。演示用的合约代码托管在在Github上:合约代码

怎样写合约参考: 超级账本HyperLedger:Fabric Chaincode(智能合约、链码)开发方法

相关笔记

视频演示:

文字介绍:

问题汇总:

Example-1:demo

example-1: demo中演示了最基本、最常用的方法,可以通过这个合约进行下面操作:

func (t *Chaincode) Invoke(stub shim.ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response {
    function, args := stub.GetFunctionAndParameters()
    switch function {
    //返回调用者信息
    case "creator":
        return t.creator(stub, args)
    //返回调用者信息,方法2
    case "creator2":
        return t.creator2(stub, args)
    //调用改合约中的其它方法,用来演示复杂的调用
    case "call":
        return t.call(stub, args)
    //直接对key的内容进行append,用来演示这样操作的结果
    case "append":
        return t.append(stub, args)
    //读取当前用户的属性值
    case "attr":
        return t.attr(stub, args)
    //查询一个key的当前值
    case "query":
        if len(args) != 1 {
            return shim.Error("parametes's number is wrong")
        }
        return t.query(stub, args[0])
    //查询一个key的所有历史值
    case "history":
        if len(args) != 1 {
            return shim.Error("parametes's number is wrong")
        }
        return t.history(stub, args[0])
    //创建一个key,并写入key的值
    case "write": //写入
        if len(args) != 2 {
            return shim.Error("parametes's number is wrong")
        }
        return t.write(stub, args[0], args[1])
    //通过当前合约,到另一个合约中进行查询
    case "query_chaincode":
        if len(args) != 2 {
            return shim.Error("parametes's number is wrong")
        }
        return t.query_chaincode(stub, args[0], args[1])
    //通过当前合约,到另一个合约中进行写入
    case "write_chaincode":
        if len(args) != 3 {
            return shim.Error("parametes's number is wrong")
        }
        return t.write_chaincode(stub, args[0], args[1], args[2])
    default:
        return shim.Error("Invalid invoke function name.")
    }
}

完整代码: 合约代码

合约安装

可以用下面的方式获取合约源代码:

mkdir -p $GOPATH/github.com/introclass
cd $GOPATH/github.com/introclass
git https://github.com/introclass/hyperledger-fabric-chaincodes.git

或者:

go get github.com/introclass/hyperledger-fabric-chaincodes

安装合约&初始化

安装合约:

cd /opt/app/fabric/cli/user/member1.example.com/Admin-peer0.member1.example.com
 ./3_install_chaincode.sh

合约初始化:

./4_instantiate_chaincode.sh

到另一个Peer上再安装一次合约:

cd /opt/app/fabric/cli/user/member1.example.com/Admin-peer1.member1.example.com/
./3_install_chaincode.sh
<不需要再次实例化>

合约直接调用

下面的操作可以在任意一个Peer进行。

获取调用者信息

查看当前调用者,调用creator方法:

应当直接使用cid包中提供的方法,见creator2的实现。

$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c  '{"Args":["creator"]}'
2018-07-18 12:45:48.083 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 12:45:48.083 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result:
peers.member1.example.com�-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

2018-07-18 12:45:48.087 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

后来发现cid的存在,用cid获取当前用户信息要简单多了:

...
"github.com/hyperledger/fabric/core/chaincode/lib/cid"
...

id, err := cid.GetID(stub)
if err != nil {
	return shim.Error("getid error: " + err.Error())
}
...
mspid, err := cid.GetMSPID(stub)
if err != nil {
	return shim.Error("getmspid error: " + err.Error())
}
...

调用creator2的结果如下:

$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["creator2"]}'
2018-07-20 16:57:47.968 CST [msp] GetLocalMSP -> DEBU 001 Returning existing local MSP
2018-07-20 16:57:47.968 CST [msp] GetDefaultSigningIdentity -> DEBU 002 Obtaining default signing identity
2018-07-20 16:57:47.968 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 003 Using default escc
2018-07-20 16:57:47.968 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 004 Using default vscc
2018-07-20 16:57:47.968 CST [chaincodeCmd] getChaincodeSpec -> DEBU 005 java chaincode disabled
2018-07-20 16:57:47.968 CST [msp/identity] Sign -> DEBU 006 Sign: plaintext: 0AC9070A6708031A0C088BC8C6DA0510...6D7963631A0A0A0863726561746F7232
2018-07-20 16:57:47.968 CST [msp/identity] Sign -> DEBU 007 Sign: digest: 0EB40A1AC4F18EDADDD47C92BC38B238ED43EA5252590121EE6EC9205C8665D7
Query Result: {"ID":"x509::[email protected],L=San Francisco,ST=California,C=US::CN=ca.member1.example.com,O
....

读写账本

写入Key:

$ ./peer.sh  chaincode invoke -o orderer0.member1.example.com:7050 --tls true --cafile tlsca.member1.example.com-cert.pem -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["write","key","keyvalue"]}'
2018-07-18 12:48:30.728 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 12:48:30.728 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
2018-07-18 12:48:30.775 CST [chaincodeCmd] chaincodeInvokeOrQuery -> INFO 003 Chaincode invoke successful. result: status:200
2018-07-18 12:48:30.775 CST [main] main -> INFO 004 Exiting.....

查询刚写入的key:

$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["query","key"]}'
2018-07-18 12:49:14.464 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 12:49:14.464 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result: keyvalue    <-- 查询的结果
2018-07-18 12:49:14.468 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

更改key的值:

$ ./peer.sh  chaincode invoke -o orderer0.member1.example.com:7050 --tls true --cafile tlsca.member1.example.com-cert.pem -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["write","key","keyvalue1"]}'
2018-07-18 12:50:44.023 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 12:50:44.023 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
2018-07-18 12:50:44.027 CST [chaincodeCmd] chaincodeInvokeOrQuery -> INFO 003 Chaincode invoke successful. result: status:200
2018-07-18 12:50:44.028 CST [main] main -> INFO 004 Exiting.....

查询key的历史数据:

$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["history","key"]}'
2018-07-18 12:52:25.332 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 12:52:25.332 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result: {"93ea6b185bb886c70f66b8b0dc8f5c727043269e2b7b7e76ae36644cd8ef3916":"keyvalue","f87a0f6f972226a57ade04a8e54db1a014d12cbab40abcbd8a5d65fe10bdfeff":"keyvalue1"}
<可以看到历史值有两个>
2018-07-18 12:52:25.340 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

并发或快速修改数据时需要注意的问题

合约中的append方法的用是,读取一个key的value,然后在读取出来的数值上修改,最后重新写入账本。

需要特别注意,这种做法是有问题的,例如下面脚本预期的最终结果是[“1”,”2”,”3”,”4”,”5”,”6”,”7”,”8”,”9”,”10”]:

for i in {1..10}
do
    echo $i
    sleep 1
    ./peer.sh chaincode invoke -o orderer0.member1.example.com:7050 --tls true --cafile tlsca.member1.example.com-cert.pem -C mychannel -n mycc -c "{\"Args\":[\"append\",\"key-array\",\"$i\"]}"
done

但执行结束后,得到的结果却是:

./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["query","key-array"]}'
2018-07-18 13:28:35.996 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:28:35.997 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result: ["1","3","5","7","9"]
2018-07-18 13:28:36.001 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

查看历史价值,发现也有很多缺失的数据:

$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["history","key-array"]}'
2018-07-18 13:28:44.773 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:28:44.773 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result: {
	"2bace9ac4812416969f623a471e902ecb6198bc9d16c1ca1e7e9586adf6cd428":"[\"1\",\"3\",\"5\",\"7\",\"9\"]",
	"6832ef710f74a39bc08e3386d0eb8aa757cb53ccd7fe149b042417b5cc436750":"[\"1\",\"3\",\"5\"]",
	"8c041cd53f045999dc41ca1facb8dbce8acb4a07ff5dd558a53f8f2908789b3d":"[\"1\"]",
	"d1b68113730f0bb8adb9a19c64594e64729b4a1c1aa81a412edd6b1b1ad84e06":"[\"1\",\"3\"]",
	"d5fe258cc64d5f10f63b8a9f3c1d321d966f4d5c45b17b5b8c31eccad231e3fd":"[\"1\",\"3\",\"5\",\"7\"]"}
2018-07-18 13:28:44.777 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

出现这种结果的原因是,其中一些append操作是基于“旧”的数据的:之前的append操作依旧修改了数据,但是当前的append还不能查询到最新的数据。

这些append操作不会被接受。

如果只“修改”数据,则会是另一种结果:

for i in {1..10}
do
    ./peer.sh  chaincode invoke -o orderer0.member1.example.com:7050 --tls true --cafile tlsca.member1.example.com-cert.pem -C mychannel -n mycc -c "{\"Args\":[\"write\",\"key-single\",\"$i\"]}"
done

执行以后查询当前值,为10:

$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["query","key-single"]}'
2018-07-18 13:41:45.257 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:41:45.257 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result: 10
2018-07-18 13:41:45.261 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

但可以在历史数据中找到所有的值:

$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["history","key-single"]}'
2018-07-18 13:42:47.206 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:42:47.206 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result: {
	"0b6e46b6397ad2e76b2de842f162d558ce88b2409656d16a30b9f53f6a038357":"6",
	"1015deb1cdfd3e08a5da2fd03ddeb0e1df69287d88c017f7d55678405fbac774":"8",
	"5291a41b310b31b14b5b96c981dc9a6923ed4c956b52ee4e662fc65167531435":"3",
	"691678195fd7fbd7787ff6fb128adff87c34de9c96e62b599320d8c1966a8397":"7",
	"876374f0551eb227351f5312ca494d141cdddae99e7d67ffeffdd0094e5532bb":"1",
	"8b02dae72f1d6f9a4db6e2daa4947be1d5bcdbfa4f4fbb7a69382cc85510732b":"4",
	"b5c89bacda118d0e0a7777aad8083c1920ac90201e3dac0e8df6385038afee5c":"10",
	"de111d7b19b68918502a52d36f49fbd17a18db46a69379d3566f8d0531307871":"2",
	"e2dbb13a5d42c33756341f487357a526e669ca5fbdefd7e49026f12e3979889c":"5",
	"eb802055364096703b351cea60c0392119c487b0ab3a9cd6ed344ee897b6fa1a":"9"}
2018-07-18 13:42:47.210 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

并发写入的问题可以参考:

HyperLedger High-Throughput Network

Hyperledger Fabric and how it isn’t concurrent out of the box.

How hyperledger handle the Concurrent of “invoke” of the same Key-Value pair of chaincode?

链式调用合约,即合约中调用另一个合约

就是通过当前合约,调用另一个合约。

demo合约中提供了一个call方法,可以很方便的测试合约链式调用:

["call","chaincode","method"...]   通过demo合约调用另一个合约

例如再部署一个叫做mycc2的合约,也使用demo的源代码,部署的合约名不同。

通过mycc调用mycc2的query:

在mycc2中查询不到通过mycc写入的数据
$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["call","mycc2","query","key-single"]}'
2018-07-18 13:53:15.680 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:53:15.680 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result:
2018-07-18 13:53:15.774 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

直接调用mycc2也是一样查不到
$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc2 -c '{"Args":["query","key-single"]}'
2018-07-18 13:55:23.315 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:55:23.315 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result:
2018-07-18 13:55:23.327 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

在mycc中可以查到
$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["query","key-single"]}'
2018-07-18 13:53:31.077 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:53:31.077 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result: 10
2018-07-18 13:53:31.082 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

如果用query方式调用另一个合约的invoke是无效的:

在mycc2中写入key
$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["call","mycc2","write","key-single","inmycc2"]}'
2018-07-18 13:59:25.610 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:59:25.610 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result:
2018-07-18 13:59:25.615 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

无效,查询不到key
$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["call","mycc2","query","key-single"]}'
2018-07-18 13:59:15.796 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:59:15.796 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result:
2018-07-18 13:59:15.802 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

如果用invoke方式调用另一个合约的invoke是有效的:

$ ./peer.sh  chaincode invoke -o orderer0.member1.example.com:7050 --tls true --cafile tlsca.member1.example.com-cert.pem -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["call","mycc2","write","key-single","inmycc2"]}'
2018-07-18 13:59:48.432 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:59:48.432 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
2018-07-18 13:59:48.439 CST [chaincodeCmd] chaincodeInvokeOrQuery -> INFO 003 Chaincode invoke successful. result: status:200
2018-07-18 13:59:48.440 CST [main] main -> INFO 004 Exiting.....

可以查询到
$ ./peer.sh chaincode query -C mychannel -n mycc -c '{"Args":["call","mycc2","query","key-single"]}'
2018-07-18 13:59:55.470 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 001 Using default escc
2018-07-18 13:59:55.470 CST [chaincodeCmd] checkChaincodeCmdParams -> INFO 002 Using default vscc
Query Result: inmycc2
2018-07-18 13:59:55.476 CST [main] main -> INFO 003 Exiting.....

背书策略不满足时,更新无效

前面创建的合约使用的背书策略是:任意一个组织的成员认可即可。

-P  "OR ('peers.member1.example.com.member','peers.member2.example.com.member')"

修改成AND的方式,试验一下多个成员共同背书的场景:

-P  "AND ('peers.member1.example.com.member','peers.member2.example.com.member')"

可以通过升级合约的方式,更新背书策略,在3_install_chaincode.sh中设置一个新的版本号:

CHANNEL_NAME="mychannel"
NAME="mycc"
VERSION="1.11"

重新安装:

./3_install_chaincode.sh

7_upgrade_chaincode.sh中更新目标版本和背书:

CHANNEL_NAME="mychannel"
NAME="mycc"
VERSION="1.11"
...
peer chaincode upgrade -o orderer0.member1.example.com:7050 --tls true --cafile tlsca.member1.example.com-cert.pem -C $CHANNEL_NAME -n $NAME -v $VERSION -c '{"Args":["init"]}' -P  "AND ('peers.member1.example.com.member','peers.member2.example.com.member')"

执行:

./7_upgrade_chaincode.sh

这时候把一个组织的所有Peer关掉,写入/更新账本是不会成功的,对应的Peer的日志会显示背书策略不满足,更新失败。

2018-07-20 10:14:36.262 UTC [vscc] Invoke -> WARN 051 Endorsement policy failure for transaction txid=2c1b021a0c428c54f52d35eddad84fc793baffb349b09a3cdd5eddac41fc5a39, err: signature set did not satisfy policy
2018-07-20 10:14:36.262 UTC [committer/txvalidator] validateTx -> ERRO 052 VSCCValidateTx for transaction txId = 2c1b021a0c428c54f52d35eddad84fc793baffb349b09a3cdd5eddac41fc5a39 returned error: VSCC error: endorsement policy failure, err: signature set did not satisfy policy
2018-07-20 10:14:36.263 UTC [valimpl] preprocessProtoBlock -> WARN 053 Channel [mychannel]: Block [18] Transaction index [0] TxId [2c1b021a0c428c54f52d35eddad84fc793baffb349b09a3cdd5eddac41fc5a39] marked as invalid by committer. Reason code [ENDORSEMENT_POLICY_FAILURE]
2018-07-20 10:14:36.332 UTC [kvledger] CommitWithPvtData -> INFO 054 Channel [mychannel]: Committed block [18] with 1 transaction(s)

从任意一个peer中查询,查到的也都是以前的值。

参考

  1. 演示使用的合约代码
  2. example-1: demo
  3. 超级账本HyperLedger:Fabric Chaincode(智能合约、链码)开发方法
  4. Hyperledger Fabric and how it isn’t concurrent out of the box.
  5. How hyperledger handle the Concurrent of “invoke” of the same Key-Value pair of chaincode?
  6. HyperLedger High-Throughput Network

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