第一个Django应用

前面创建了一个Django项目,接下来在项目中创建Django应用。

创建一个名为poll的应用

在Django项目目录中运行下面的命令:

python manage.py startapp polls

自动生成的polls应用代码如下:

(env) lijiaos-mbp:mysite lijiao$ tree polls/
polls/
├── __init__.py
├── admin.py
├── apps.py
├── migrations
│   └── __init__.py
├── models.py
├── tests.py
└── views.py

1 directory, 7 files

开发应用的视图

views.py中是应用的视图(views),视图是与url一一对应的。

例如在views.py中添加一个名为index的视图,它的传入参数就是用户的请求:

from django.shortcuts import render

# Create your views here.

from django.http import HttpResponse

def index(request):
    return HttpResponse("Hello, world. You're at the polls index.")

request的类型是HttpRequest

需要创建polls/urls.py文件,并在其中添加下面的内容:

from django.urls import path

from . import views

urlpatterns = [
    path('', views.index, name='index'),
]

最后在django项目文件mysite/urls.py中设置polls应用的url:

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import include, path

urlpatterns = [
    path('polls/', include('polls.urls')),
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
]

上面设置的含义是/polls/XX样式的请求被转发给polls应用处理,在polls/urls.py中找到对应的处理函数,也就是view。

path函数的定义:path(route, view, kwargs=None, name=None)

访问应用视图

用python ./manage.py runserver 启动项目后,访问polls应用的视图/polls/

$ curl http://127.0.0.1:8000/polls/
Hello, world. You're at the polls index.

现在应用polls之后一个视图,如果使用其它的url会返回404,即页面没找到的错误:

Page not found (404)
Request Method:    GET
Request URL:    http://127.0.0.1:8000/polls/ab
Using the URLconf defined in mysite.urls, Django tried these URL patterns, in this order:

admin/
polls/ [name='index']
The current path, polls/ab, didn't match any of these.

You're seeing this error because you have DEBUG = True in your Django settings file. Change that to False, and Django will display a standard 404 page.

results matching ""

    No results matching ""