Django应用的测试代码编写

测试代码在Django应用的tests.py文件中编写,Django提供一个名为TestCase的类。

测试用例1:刷入错误数据,检查输出

from django.test import TestCase

# Create your tests here.

import datetime
from django.utils import timezone
from .models import Question

class QuestionModelTests(TestCase):
    def test_was_published_recently_with_future_question(self):
        """
        was_published_recently() returns False for questions whose pub_date
        is in the future.
        """
        time = timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=30)
        future_question = Question(pub_date=time)
        self.assertIs(future_question.was_published_recently(), False)

运行下面的命令进行测试:

python ./manage.py test polls

如果测试不通过,输出内容如下:

Creating test database for alias 'default'...
System check identified no issues (0 silenced).
F
======================================================================
FAIL: test_was_published_recently_with_future_question (polls.tests.QuestionModelTests)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/Users/lijiao/Work/workspace/studys/study-python/django/django-py3/mysite/polls/tests.py", line 17, in test_was_published_recently_with_future_question
    self.assertIs(future_question.was_published_recently(), False)
AssertionError: True is not False

----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 1 test in 0.001s

FAILED (failures=1)
Destroying test database for alias 'default'...

测试通过时输出内容如下:

(env) 192:mysite lijiao$ python ./manage.py test polls
Creating test database for alias 'default'...
System check identified no issues (0 silenced).
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 1 test in 0.001s

OK

测试用例2:测试view

Django提供了一个测试用的client,可以模拟用户发起请求,可以在test.py中或者shell中使用这个client。

在命令行使用测试用的Client

(env) 192:mysite lijiao$ python manage.py shell
Python 3.7.2 (default, Feb 12 2019, 08:15:36)
[Clang 10.0.0 (clang-1000.11.45.5)] on darwin
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
(InteractiveConsole)
>>> from django.test.utils import setup_test_environment
>>> setup_test_environment()
>>> from django.test import Client
>>> client = Client()
>>> response = client.get('/')
Not Found: /
>>> response.status_code
404
>>> from django.urls import reverse
>>>
>>> response = client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
>>> response.status_code
200
>>> response.content
b'\n    <ul>\n    \n        <li><a href="/polls/1/">What&#39;s up?</a></li>\n    \n    </ul>\n\n'
>>> response.context['latest_question_list']
<QuerySet [<Question: What's up?>]>
>>>

在tests.py中使用测试用的Client

在tests.py中写入数据后,再用Client请求查看返回的数据是否正确:

def create_question(question_text, days):
    """
    Create a question with the given `question_text` and published the
    given number of `days` offset to now (negative for questions published
    in the past, positive for questions that have yet to be published).
    """
    time = timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=days)
    return Question.objects.create(question_text=question_text, pub_date=time)


class QuestionIndexViewTests(TestCase):
    def test_no_questions(self):
        """
        If no questions exist, an appropriate message is displayed.
        """
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertEqual(response.status_code, 200)
        self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.")
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_question_list'], [])

    def test_past_question(self):
        """
        Questions with a pub_date in the past are displayed on the
        index page.
        """
        create_question(question_text="Past question.", days=-30)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
            response.context['latest_question_list'],
            ['<Question: Past question.>']
        )

    def test_future_question(self):
        """
        Questions with a pub_date in the future aren't displayed on
        the index page.
        """
        create_question(question_text="Future question.", days=30)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.")
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_question_list'], [])

    def test_future_question_and_past_question(self):
        """
        Even if both past and future questions exist, only past questions
        are displayed.
        """
        create_question(question_text="Past question.", days=-30)
        create_question(question_text="Future question.", days=30)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
            response.context['latest_question_list'],
            ['<Question: Past question.>']
        )

    def test_two_past_questions(self):
        """
        The questions index page may display multiple questions.
        """
        create_question(question_text="Past question 1.", days=-30)
        create_question(question_text="Past question 2.", days=-5)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
            response.context['latest_question_list'],
            ['<Question: Past question 2.>', '<Question: Past question 1.>']
        )

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