go的内置函数

go内置了一些函数,这些函数可以直接使用。

关闭(Close)

close

长度和容量(Length and capacit)

Call      Argument type    Result

len(s)    string type      string length in bytes
          [n]T, *[n]T      array length (== n)
          []T              slice length
          map[K]T          map length (number of defined keys)
          chan T           number of elements queued in channel buffer

cap(s)    [n]T, *[n]T      array length (== n)
          []T              slice capacity
          chan T           channel buffer capacity

分配(Allocation)

new(T)

创建(Making slices, maps and channels)

Call             Type T     Result

make(T, n)       slice      slice of type T with length n and capacity n
make(T, n, m)    slice      slice of type T with length n and capacity m

make(T)          map        map of type T
make(T, n)       map        map of type T with initial space for n elements

make(T)          channel    unbuffered channel of type T
make(T, n)       channel    buffered channel of type T, buffer size n

例如:

s := make([]int, 10, 100)       // slice with len(s) == 10, cap(s) == 100
s := make([]int, 1e3)           // slice with len(s) == cap(s) == 1000
s := make([]int, 1<<63)         // illegal: len(s) is not representable by a value of type int
s := make([]int, 10, 0)         // illegal: len(s) > cap(s)
c := make(chan int, 10)         // channel with a buffer size of 10
m := make(map[string]int, 100)  // map with initial space for 100 elements

分片的追加(Appending to slices)

append(s S, x ...T) S  // T is the element type of S

例如:

s0 := []int{0, 0}
s1 := append(s0, 2)                // append a single element     s1 == []int{0, 0, 2}
s2 := append(s1, 3, 5, 7)          // append multiple elements    s2 == []int{0, 0, 2, 3, 5, 7}
s3 := append(s2, s0...)            // append a slice              s3 == []int{0, 0, 2, 3, 5, 7, 0, 0}
s4 := append(s3[3:6], s3[2:]...)   // append overlapping slice    s4 == []int{3, 5, 7, 2, 3, 5, 7, 0, 0}

var t []interface{}
t = append(t, 42, 3.1415, "foo")   //                             t == []interface{}{42, 3.1415, "foo"}

var b []byte
b = append(b, "bar"...)            // append string contents      b == []byte{'b', 'a', 'r' }

分片的复制(Copying slices)

copy(dst, src []T) int
copy(dst []byte, src string) int

例如:

var a = [...]int{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
var s = make([]int, 6)
var b = make([]byte, 5)
n1 := copy(s, a[0:])            // n1 == 6, s == []int{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
n2 := copy(s, s[2:])            // n2 == 4, s == []int{2, 3, 4, 5, 4, 5}
n3 := copy(b, "Hello, World!")  // n3 == 5, b == []byte("Hello")

字典成员的删除(Deletion of map elements)

delete(m, k)  // remove element m[k] from map m 

复数的操作(Manipulating complex numbers)

complex(realPart, imaginaryPart floatT) complexT
real(complexT) floatT
imag(complexT) floatT

例如:

var a = complex(2, -2)             // complex128
const b = complex(1.0, -1.4)       // untyped complex constant 1 - 1.4i
x := float32(math.Cos(math.Pi/2))  // float32
var c64 = complex(5, -x)           // complex64
var s uint = complex(1, 0)         // untyped complex constant 1 + 0i can be converted to uint
_ = complex(1, 2<<s)               // illegal: 2 assumes floating-point type, cannot shift
var rl = real(c64)                 // float32
var im = imag(a)                   // float64
const c = imag(b)                  // untyped constant -1.4
_ = imag(3 << s)                   // illegal: 3 assumes complex type, cannot shift

panic处理(Handling panics)

panic(interface{})
func recover() interface{}

例如:

func protect(g func()) {
    defer func() {
        log.Println("done")  // Println executes normally even if there is a panic
        if x := recover(); x != nil {
            log.Printf("run time panic: %v", x)
        }
    }()
    log.Println("start")
    g()
}

自举函数(Bootstrapping)

Function   Behavior

print      prints all arguments; formatting of arguments is implementation-specific
println    like print but prints spaces between arguments and a newline at the end

参考

  1. 李佶澳的博客

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